Goat farm – experience of a successful farmer kk sasiram presents
India has a very large and diverse genetic resource of goats. Goat plays a significant role in economic upliftment of rural poor of our country. Consumption of goat meat (chevon) is increasing rapidly due to its social acceptability. This sector has tremendous potential in employment generation & poverty reduction.Before starting a Goat farm the entrepreneurs/ farmers are advised to under go training on goat farming. They can contact Local Animal Husbandry Department staffs/Veterinary College/agriculture University etc. for the purpose. They should also visit progressive Goat farmers and government/ agricultural university goat farm in the locality. They must check the following points before starting a goat farm.
- Availability of good quality Parent stock in the locality
- Marketing facility for goat & goat meat
- Nearness of farm to veterinary hospital/Livestock Aid center
- Availability of concentrates ,fodder & medicine in that locality.
POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED BEFORE STARTING A GOAT FARM
Get expert opinion
Preference of goat or sheep
Study the age at sales for mutton purpose
Daily average sales
Status of goat which were started already
Study reason for failures in goat farm already started
Selection of place
Determine the number of goats reared
Get training in goat rearing
Assess the feed requirement
Plan fodder cultivation
Plan construction of shed
Plan selection of animals
Buy animals from breeder
Quarantine the animal for 120 – 150 days
Plan vaccination of deworming of animals
Allow the new animals in the farm
Planning,Inquiring,Visiting and Assessing before starting a farm-
FODDER GRASS NEEDED FOR GOATS
In grazing system, goats select their grazing as their nutrient requirement
In grazing system, goats like to feed 80% on leavers and 20% on grass
Goats like liberty
Goats bored in a short period itself on feeding the same type of feed. It changes the feed as per the variation in the season or climate. You can identify the plants liked by the goat in a short period
Feed manger should be placed at 5 feet height
Goat likes to feed plants at flowering stage, hence harvest the fodder at the flowering stage
Goats feed many times in a day and spend more time on feeding than sheep. Hence divide the feed ration into 3 to 5 doses and don’t disturb them while feeding
FEEDING HABITS OF GOAT
Goats waste feed from 30 to 40% more than sheep and hence this habit has taken into consideration while cultivating grass
Goats need more sodium salt than sheep
Heavy goats disturb the lighter weight goats so keep the same weighing goats in one compartment
Goat has its own territory border and it will not allow other goats in its terotory, so provide recommended space
Goats digest more fibrous feed than sheep
It secretes more saliva
AN INTRODUCTION TO GOAT REARING
Goats became one of the family members of farmers
It is mobile ATM
Goats play an important role in the financial up liftment of farmers than any other animals
Goat farming is a profitable self employment business
Goat farm – experience of a successful farmer-
Breeds of Goats
Selection breed should be based on the climatic environment.
Different breeds in our state in Tamilnadu
- Salem black
Seen majority in Ramanathapuram and Thuthukudi dist.
Seen minority Dindigul district
Body Colour is Black sprinkled on white color, even mixed with red colour also.
Average body weight bucks 42kg, doe 37kg.
Seen in virdhunagar, dindigul, sivakasi, thuthukudi districts
Black body colour white lines seen on either side of the face, two white line seen on the ear border
- Pal kanni(White)
- Seng kanni(Red)
Body bucks 40kg, doe 35kg.
3. Salem Black
Seen in the areas of Omalur, Mecheri in Salem Dist, Oddanchatram in Dindigul Dist, Dharmapuri, krishnagiri Dist
Average body weight bucks 38kg, doe 32 to 35kg.
A few information regarding goat:
- Birth weight of kid: 7 to 8% of mother weight.(1.5 to2Kg)
- Breeding age: Female: 10 to 12monts of age(it depends on body weight)
Male: 1 ½ years.
- Age at which sale: 9 months.
- Reproductive cycle: 18 to 21 days.
- Pregnancy period: 145 to 150 days.
Selection of breeds
Consider the breeds suitable for climatic conduction.
Consider native breeds like Salem balck, kanni & kodi
Generally purchase the goats at the farm or from breeder.
To identify the pox like disease, apply the palm against the hair coat of skin.
Don’t allow the animal in to the farm immediately of the purchase. keep separately for 20 days.
Identify the sick ones and sell them.
Deworm the goat after 20 days.
Get the information about vaccination schedule from vet & vaccinate properly.
Don’t allow the visitors in to the farm.
Active goats with large, soft udder, not pendulous are desirable for purchase .
Avoid the purchase of goats having, tumors and to parasites.
Goat requires 15 to 20 sq feet per animal.
Shed should face east, west.
Shed should be 15 to 20 feet breath.
Side wall should be 1 ½ feet height from the floor and the remaining can be made of wire mesh.
Floor space for adult: 12-15 square feet covered space and 20-24 square feet open space
Fill the floor with coarse soil about 1 ½ feet height.
Deep litter material: 7kg / goat for 4-6 months, for 10 goat (yield 2 ½ ton manure).
Floor should be made in slopes.
Shed one side should be covered area and the other side should be open.
One feeder and one waterer for every 10 goat.
Keep the feeder at three places at 1 ½ feet height and one water duff.
Waterer and manager should be kept clean.
In some places slatted floor shed in practiced.
Slatted floor should be 2’ to 2 ½’ height from the floor.
One inch gap should be allowed in each repair.
Dung and urine of goats dropped in to the floor and it can be cleaned once in 3 to 4 months.
Is slatted floor necessary?
Slatted floor shed in not necessary for our climatic condition.
It is recommended for heavy rain fall area where the soil is always wet.
In foreign countries and in very large size farm where they keep 4000 to 5000 goats it is recommended to reduce labor cost.
No additional weight gain in goat reared in slatted flood.
No evidence of stress management in slatted floor goat rearing.
No change in blood picture due to slatted floor management.
Slatted floor rearing of goat
It does not increase its growth.
It does not reduce its head stress.
It doesn’t increase blood production.
It doesn’t reduce the intestinal worm burden in places where average rainfall in below 800 mm. (Vieira, 1987)
Hence, it is advisable not to spent money on slatted floor shed.
Caring of kids
Clean the nostrils of the kid.
Allow the kid suckle on udder, after cleaning the udder in warm water.
Colostrums milk should be given within 15minitues of birth.
Cut the nasal cord 1” away from the body and apply tincture iodine.
If the kids soiled with urine and dung the mother goat will not accept it, to avoid this apply mother milk on the kids body.
Allow the kids with the mother for abot 3 to 4 days .
Don’t allow the too small kids with the mother to graze.
If necessary, castrate the male kid in 3months of age.
The kids can grow by feeding the other goats milk, whenever necessary.
Kids can fed with the warm cow milk at the temp of 35c.
Allow the kids up to 3months with mother & then allow them separately.
Growth will be faster, between 3 months to 6 months of age.
Growth will be medium between 6 months to 9 months of age.
After 9 months of age, growth rate is slow in correlation with the food intake.
Sale the male kids under 9 months of age and female kids on 1 ½ year of age is preferable.
Mineral mixture deficiency usually not met in goats reared under grazing.
Salt lick is necessary for goat reared in shed. It should be hanged in the shed.
Iodide salt should also be supplemented with feed.
Goats need different kinds of tree fodder; hence don’t feed the goat on same type of feed.
Cultivate different types of fodder to feed the goat.
Growth rate greatly reduced in every shortfall in types of fodder.
study on feeding different tree feed
Provide a mixture of 50% of grass and 50% of green leaves in goats ration.
For example a goat feeding 6kg of fodder, provide it as 3 kg of grass and 3kg of tree leaves.
Growth rate will be more, when you provide concentrate feed along with grass and tree leaves.
For breeding, male above 2 years of age and female 1 ½ years can be used.
One male for 20 female is necessary.
Male should keep separately, and allowed to the female in the night time only.
Goat able to breed throughout the year.
We can use marker on the male to identify the female which mated.
Non pregnant females again return to heat after 21 days.
Pregnant animals do not come to heat usually.
To get healthier kids, we should follow the correct feeding practice.
Breeding performance increases, in cases of shorter inter kidding period.
Females return to heat 45 to 60 days after kidding.
We can get three kidding in two years period.
Change the male once in every 2 years, but not select the male from the same flock for breeding.
Change the female which kidded 5 times.
Once in two years, cull the old, infertile, under growth ones from the farm.
Care of male
Male should be given grains or concentrate, along with greens during breeding (age of 2 ½ years).
Allow 25 to 30 female for a male.
Don’t graze the male along with female.
Care of pregnant doe:
60 days after mating provide extra nutrient to the conceived female.
Provide green fodder.
Nearing parturition female should be grazed separately, keep them in separate stall. Relaxation of glutial muscle noticed in nearing parturition female.
A true story profitable goat farm-
We can follow 3 types of feeding management
- Grazing or free range system.
- Grazing and feeding concentrate or semi-intensive system.
- Stall feed or intensive system.
Grazing and concentrate feeding system (semi intensive)
Provide extra ration at the evening & night after grazing.
Provide grass or concentrate feed.
If concentrate feed, provide 15% of its body weight or greens in adlibitum.
Quantity of greens provided will vary depends on the grazing.
For example provide 100 to 150g concentrate feed to the 20kg weighing goat.
Harvest & store the cowpea plant at the early pod stage and provide to the goat instead of concentrate feed.
In case of feeding green fodder, make sure that it should be of 50% grass & 50% leaves of the fodder.
Care of meat purpose male
It is essential to provide concentrate feed at the last month of gestation.
Purchase the kids born in single. Kid’s birth will be more.
Growth will be very high up to 5 months of age.
Growth will be slow after 9 months of age.
Wean the kids at the age 2 ½ months.
Provide starter ration.
Provide 50% grass + 30% legume + 20% tree leaves, in addition provide concentrate ration 1% of its body weight along with mineral mixture and iodized salt.
Sale the male at festival season.
Consider the points like color, whorl for sale of religious purpose.
Price the animal by weight basis.
Avail the open of sale by advertisement and internet.
Profitable simple goat farming-
Cultivation of mixed cropping pattern
More fodder is produced under mixed crop pattern than the individual cultivation.
For example three rows of Co3 or Co4, with one row of hedge Lucerne.
Two rows of fodder sorghum with one row of soybean.
Three rows of super Napier grass with one row of style
It increases the fertility rate and provide necessary nutrient to the growing fetus.
In case of own preparation for concentrate mixture, prepare it for 15days alone and keep it in well ventilated area.
To prepare 10kg of concentrate feed mix:
- Cereals (maize, cumbu, sorghum, broken rice) – 3.4 kg
- Oil cake – 1.5 – 2kg
- Bran – 3 – 4 kg
- Mineral mixture – 200g
- Iodized salt – 100g
Few concentrate mixtures for goat
- Dried cowpea 50%
- GNC 20%
- Maize 27%
- Mm 2%
- Salt 1%
Average weight gain 80G/day
- Dried cow pea plant 70%
- Broken maize 28%
- Mm 2%
- Salt 1%
Average of weight gain 125G/day
- Poultry waste 30%
- Cotton seed cake 20%
- GNC 7%
- Sorghum 30%
- Molasses 10%
- Mineral mixture 2%
- Salt 1%
- 200 to 300G cotton seed
Average weight gain 53-6G/day
Green fodder management
Chaff the agricultural waste and spray 2% of common salt on it and it can be feed to the goat.
Chaff or grind the agricultural residue and spray urea solution on it and keep it air tight for 21 days and it can be feed to the goat.
To meet shortage of green fodder in summer Silage feed is required.
Importance of green fodder
Green fodder plays major role in supplementary protein, fiber content, vitamin and minerals and also control the animal’s body temp to a great extent.
Green fodder can be classified into four groups,
Grass fodder :Co3,Co4,super Napier,
Cereal fodder :maize, sorghum
Legume fodder :Hedge Lucerne, stylo
Tree fodder :Agathi, Subabul, vaagai, kalyana murungai, Glyrecidea
Preparation for breeding season (Flushing)
Provide 25% additional feed 2to3 weeks before breeding season.
Provide 150G of concentrate 2to3 weeks before breeding and 3weeks before parturition.
Due to flushing, multiple ovulations occur, thereby increases the changes of more number of kids.
Provide concentrate feed, to kids of 45days old.
For kids 50 to 100G/day.
Adult one 250G/day.
One saltlick sufficient for 20 goats.
Deworming of goats
Symptoms of worm burden,
Lose in weight gain.
Rough hair coat.
Deworm the animal 2 or 3 months once.
Deworm, once before the onset of monsoon and once during monsoon.
Deworm, two times after of the monsoon.
Deworm should be done under consultant of vet.
Diseases of goat
- Coli form & salmonella diseases
It is a viral disease.
Symptoms are mouth ulcers, discharge from nostril, eye,and loose motion.
Fever, up to 6 to 8 days.
This disease can be prevented by vaccination.
It is a viral disease.
It spread through the air.
Symptoms of are vesicles appear and it turns to ulcer on tongue, mouth, and gum and hoof region.
Continuous salivation and the animal cannot take food and water.
It can be prevented by vaccination.
- Contagious eczema (ORF)
Symptoms are ulcer in lips and nose.
The animal will recover in 10 days. No vaccine available.
It is a disease caused by bacteria.
Animal dies suddenly without any symptoms.
Un clotted tarry colored blood from the mouth, nose and anus seen from carcass.
DOESN’T CUT OPEN THIS CARCASS. It infects human also.
This disease can be prevented by vaccination.
- Entero toxemia (ETV)
Unclean water and food is the predisposing factor and it is a bacterial disease.
Diseased animal shows convulsions and die.
This disease can be prevented by vaccination.
It causes abortion in animals.
From the blood and placenta of the diseased animal it can infect human .
Preventing by doing vaccination.
- Coliform and salmonella diseases
It affects goats and kids through water and food.
Loss of appetite and loose motion is there symptoms.
It can be controlled by antibiotics.
Disease caused by ectoparasite
It is caused by ticks.
Symptoms are fever, enlargement of lymph nodes, jaundice and anemia.
It can be treated and prevented by control of ectoparasites.
It is also caused by ticks.
Symptoms are fever, anemia, coffee colored urine.
It can be treatment by vet.
Feb.- March Pox
March- April FMD
April – May Jones
May – June ETV
July – Aug PPR